The Healthiest Diet of All
                                                         By: Neal D. Barnard, M.D.
                                                                President; Physicians Committee
         for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)
       Washington, D.C.

         Today, physicians understand the
          vital links between nutrition and
          health better than ever before.  
           We can put this powerful
          knowledge to work in our lives with
           food choices that keep us healthy,
         active and vibrant.  

What many of us have become accustomed to eating for breakfast, lunch and
dinner - high-fat, high-cholesterol,
‘convenience foods’- has taken a serious
toll in the form of obesity, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and certain
cancers.  There is nothing convenient or easy about living with these difficult
conditions.  But it is never too late to put nutrition to work.  

At last, many health care providers and their patients are taking a closer look
why this has occurred at a time when medical wisdom seems so profound.  It
appears that we’ve simply abandoned many basic and simple truths in favor
‘quick fixes’—that is, prescription drug therapies, even heart surgeries,
and the like, which have proved to be neither
‘quick’ nor total ‘fixes’.  We’ve
simply forgotten the phenomenal power that wholesome foods can provide.  

The healing nutrients found in a variety of vegetables, whole grains, fruits and
legumes are the best dose of preventive medicine we can find.  

The world’s leading health organizations agree.  For nearly a decade, the
World Health Organization has said that a diet rich in sugar, meat, and other
animal products will cause heart disease and cancer to continue as the world’
s major health problems.  

It has also urged the government to bolster its plant food industries, including
vegetables and fruits and to limit those known to contribute to chronic
disease - the meat, dairy, and egg industries.  

Amongst the deluge of ad campaigns promoting terribly unhealthy foods, the
challenge lies in educating consumers with valuable information.  
Healthiest Diet Of All
is a wonderful resource that does precisely that.  
Supported by scientific studies and a pleasure to read, it explains how a plant-
based diet can decrease the risk for many chronic illnesses, encourage
weight loss, promote longevity and provide the perfect balance of nutrients.  

My advice to anyone seeking to gain the most benefit possible from foods is
to throw away the animal products and embrace vegetarian meals—not in
small steps, but entirely.  Immediate changes may be apparent; long-term
changes will be significant.  

My work as a physician and that of my colleagues would be easier if all of our
patients embraced healthy eating habits.  
The Healthiest Diet Of All will help
you on your way.  

In an
American Dietetic Association Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets, they
stated that:

"Scientific data suggest positive relationships between a vegetarian diet and
reduced risk for several chronic degenerative diseases and conditions,
including obesity, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,
and some types of cancer.”  

The better health statistics for vegetarians and vegans (a vegan diet consists
of no animal products) aren't peripheral but are quite profound.  

The usual argument put forward to explain these dramatic improvements in
health - often by doctors with little nutritional training or by those with a
vested interest in the meat industry - is that veggies are non-drinking, non-
smoking, self denying, puritans so no wonder they live longer.  And who
wants to be like that?  

Studies that have controlled for lifestyle variables still show that a vegetarian
diet is more healthy than a non-vegetarian diet.  It is this solid, reputable
science that will be quoted throughout this guide; much of it obtained from
some of the world's most authoritative and prestigious health advisory

Why is diet so important?  Well, if you live an average life span of about 72
years, you will plow your way through an astonishing 30 tons of food.  It's the
fuel that keeps you going and it's the nutrients in food that make you what
you are.  Your heartbeats on them, your muscles, kidneys and liver depend
upon them.  Food keeps you warm, repairs the bits of damage that inevitably
occur and it even helps you think.  Food is pretty important stuff- but not just
any old food.  

If you were to eat the same diet as a lion - mostly meat and no fruit and
vegetables - you would die and probably quite quickly.  Similarly, a lion would
be unable to survive on the average vegetarian diet.  The reasons for the
difference is that, after millions of years of evolution, all animals have adapted
to their different environments.  

Meat contains no vitamin C so lions have the ability to manufacture
(synthesize) it internally.  We, on the other hand, are higher apes and have
evolved to eat fresh fruit and vegetables, shoots, seeds, nuts and leaves - a
diet rich in vitamin C - on a daily basis.  Throughout our evolution there was
an abundant supply of vitamin C in virtually everything we ate so our bodies
have never had to manufacture it.  

"But chimps eat meat" is the usual cry.  Chimps' eating habits have been
closely studied over many years and the amount of meat they eat is
minuscule - about the size of half-a-pea a day, mostly made up of insects.  

Indeed, they eat so little that their hands and nails, teeth and digestive tract
are those of a predominately vegan animal.  The genetic difference between a
chimp and a human is only 1.5%.  

Some people claim our teeth are those of a carnivore, which is obvious
nonsense and a quick look inside the mouth of a cat or dog will show you
why.  Our teeth, with their predominantly flat surfaces, are designed to grind
and crush tough vegetable matter and are incapable of eating meat unless it's
cooked first.  

And we haven't got the canines of a killer - we'd all look like Dracula if we
had.  Human teeth are not designed for holding or killing prey and they
certainly couldn't bite through the hide of a large animal.  

Why does all this matter?  Because sensible eating is about distinguishing
between healthy and potentially unhealthy foods - for us.    

Take lions, for instance.  No matter how much meat they eat, no matter how
fatty it is, their arteries don't clog up.  Ours, on the other hand, do and the
damage can start as young as two or three years old.  The result is high blood
pressure and heart attacks later in life.  

These deadly diseases are at epidemic proportions: For example, according
to the
American Heart Association (AHA), coronary heart disease is the single
leading cause of death in the United States today.  Moreover, they are almost
all diet related - caused by animal products.  And some people still claim we're
meant to eat meat.    

Dr. T. Colin Campbell, of
Cornell University, organized a massive piece of
dietary research called the
China Study - one of the most important ever

When its findings were published, he said:

"We're basically a vegetarian species and should be eating a wide variety of
plant foods and minimizing our intake of animal foods.  Animal foods are not
really helpful and we need to get away from eating them.”

               The Official Position
The worlds most important health advisory bodies are now in complete
agreement - a vegetarian diet is one of the healthiest possible.  And it seems
the fewer animal products it contains, such as milk and cheese, the healthier
it is.  In other words, the closer it is to being vegan, the healthier it becomes.  
These are some of the health statements that have been made over the past
few years.  We will expand on each of the terms used later in the guide.  

The British Medical Association (BMA) was one of the first to distill the
growing volume of research on diet and health in its 1986 report.  It said:

“Vegetarians have lower rates of obesity, coronary heart disease, high blood
pressure, large bowel disorders, cancers and gall stones.  Cholesterol levels
tend to be lower in vegetarians.”  

It went on to say that when meat eaters change to a vegetarian diet it can
actually lower their cholesterol levels.  It concluded by saying that
vegetarians obtain all the minerals they need and that folate levels are higher
than meateaters.  

              The China Study
The initial results of this combined Chinese -U.S. - British study, which began
in 1983, were announced in 1989.  It was a massive piece of work, which
looked at the health, and eating habits of 6,500 people in real life situations.  
Its conclusions were accurately summed up in a
New York Times headline on
May 8, 1990:

“Huge Study of Diet Indicts Fat and Meat.”  In short, it found that the greatest
single influence on the growth of degenerative diseases such as coronary
heart disease, cancer and diabetes was the amount of animal fat and protein
eaten - the more you eat, the greater your risk.  

It highlighted some extraordinary dietary differences between affluent and not
so affluent societies.  Animal protein itself raises the risks of cancer and heart

These are the two biggest killers in the West but there are others, such as
diabetes, strokes, obesity and high blood pressure, which are associated
with the West's affluent lifestyle.  They are degenerative diseases and the
China Study found that they increased alarmingly as people changed from a
more simple, predominantly vegetarian or vegan diet, to a Western diet based
on meat and dairy products.  

The study also found that the West's preoccupation with promoting meat as
the main source of iron was wrong.  The Chinese diet was predominantly
vegetarian and yet adults consumed twice as much iron as an adult in the U.
S.  The Chinese diet also contained three times more fiber than a U.S. diet but
there was no evidence that these high levels interfered with absorption of
iron or other essential minerals.  

The conclusions were unequivocal - that a plant-based diet is more likely to
promote good health and reduce the risk of degenerative diseases.  

 The World Health Organization
Next came an even more detailed report from the WHO in 1991.  It was
interpreted by many as a call for the world to go vegetarian - and that's
precisely what it was.  

It stated that a diet rich in animal products promotes heart disease, cancer
and several other diseases.  It confirmed the
BMA's and China Study's list of
degenerative diseases and added others - osteoporosis, and kidney failure as
being related to meat eating.  

It said that diets associated with increases in chronic diseases are those rich
in sugar, meat and other animal products, saturated fat and dietary
cholesterol, and added:

“If such trends continue, the end of this century will see cardiovascular (heart)
disease and cancer established as major health problems in every country in
the world.”
 And, of course, its predictions have been proved true.  

But it went even further and condemned the years of public urgings by
governments to eat animal products.  It went on to say that in future:

“Policies should be geared to the growing of plant foods, including vegetables
and fruits, and to limiting the promotion of fat containing products.”  

The large quantities of cheap meat, which have adversely affected health, are
only available because of intensive, factory farming and the WHO also had
plenty to say about that:

“Farming policies which do not rely on intensive animal production systems
would reduce the world demand for cereals.  Use of land could be reappraised
since cereal consumption by the population is much more efficient and
cheaper than dedicating large areas to growing feed for meat production and
 That advice has also been ignored.  

In fact, as development takes place in previously undeveloped countries
there is a shift towards a more affluent diet, the report says.  As a
consequence, there is a dramatic increase in the incidence of diet related

                                 The Oxford Study
In early 1995, an interim report was issued by Oxford University scientists
working on another huge piece of research, commonly known as the

It is ongoing and is examining the diets of 11,000 people over a period of 13
years.  The interim report confirmed lower rates of cancer and heart disease
among vegetarians but added a new twist - 20% lower premature mortality.  

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)
PCRM is a highly respected group of 5,000 doctors.  It includes William
Roberts, editor of the
American Journal of Cardiology, as well as the late
Benjamin Spock.  

In 1995, PCRM confirmed the lower rates of disease among vegetarians and
urged the government to recommend a vegetarian diet to U.S. citizens.  
Before this, the
U.S. Dietary Guidelines had never made any mention of
vegetarianism.  The following year they did so for the first time, stating:

“Vegetarians enjoy excellent health: Vegetarian diets are consistent with the
Dietary Guidelines and can meet Recommended Daily Allowances for
nutrients.  Protein is not limited in vegetarian diets.”

The PCRM report reviewed over 100 pieces of published work from across
the world and was in no doubt about what we should be eating:

“The scientific literature supports the use of vegetables, fruits, legumes peas,
beans, chick peas and grains as staples.  Meats, dairy products and added
vegetable oils should be considered optional.”  

It was another clear and unequivocal statement that humans do not need to
eat meat and are healthier for not doing so.  

            American Dietetic Association
The ADA is probably one of the most respected health bodies in the world
and, in its most recent report on vegetarianism; it kicked off with the words:

“Studies indicate that vegetarians often have lower morbidity and mortality
rates from several chronic diseases than do non vegetarians”

It confirmed that vegetarians are less at risk from the major degenerative
diseases, including kidney disease and diabetes, and states that a vegetarian
diet can arrest coronary artery disease.  

The ADA spells out the reason for this by saying that vegetarian diets offer
disease protection benefits because of their lower saturated fat, cholesterol
and animal protein content and often higher concentrations of folate,
antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids (vitamin A) and
phytochemicals (plant nutrients).  

The combined conclusions of this huge volume of research from these
different sources is overwhelming.  Vegetarian diets are the healthiest
possible and the most natural for the human race.  

So why isn't the fact more widely known?  Government silence on the subject
speaks volumes about the power and advertising spending of the meat
industry and the government cowardice.

Politicians are terrified to tackle the vested interests of a huge industry; just
as for decades they were terrified to effectively tackle the tobacco industry.  
You, of course, don't need anyone's permission to change your diet.  

 Coronary Heart Disease
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States.  The
numbers associated with it are staggering: Almost one of every two
Americans will die from heart disease, and approximately 1.5 million a year
suffer heart attacks.  

An important factor in this epidemic is our consumption of animal products.  
In a 1990 report, the
American Heart Association stated that:

“The evidence linking elevated serum cholesterol to coronary heart disease is

A 1990 study in Lancet and a 1995 study in Journal of the American Medical
(JAMA) both showed that a low-fat vegetarian (almost vegan) diet
was part of an effective treatment for reversing heart disease.  

Other diets, including eating low-fat meats, have not been shown to reverse
heart disease.  

The heart is a pump that circulates blood around the body; to stay healthy it
needs a generous supply of oxygenated blood, supplied by the coronary

If any of the coronary arteries become blocked and the supply is interrupted,
permanent damage to the heart can occur - in fact the affected part can die
(myocardial infarction).  

In the following weeks this dead muscle is replaced by scar tissue, which,
unlike the rest of the heart, can’t contract, and the heart becomes less
efficient.  If the damage is severe enough it can be fatal.  Heart attacks can be
silent and painless or they can be painful and deadly.  

With angina, the artery is narrowed to a degree where it will allow enough
blood to the heart when a person is resting but not enough to provide
sufficient oxygen for physical activity, which can result in acute pain.  How
arteries become blocked is explained in the following sections.  

                     Cholesterol, Clogged Arteries
Just about every large-scale study of people and their day-to-day living
(epidemiological studies) have found vegetarians to be considerably less at
risk of heart disease.  

The percentage by which the risk drops varies from study to study but many
estimate it between 25 and 50%.  One study in the
American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition
found it to be 60% less, the Oxford Study found it to be 25
England’s Imperial Cancer Research Fund puts it at 24%.  

All the main researchers are in agreement that animal products are the
principal cause of degenerative diseases.  What is surprising is how quickly
the health advantages of a plant-based diet disappear once people start to
consume animal products as their national prosperity grows.  

Heart disease and cancers are nearly as great in newly developing countries
as they are in wealthy, developed countries with national incomes three times
higher.  The country of Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, is a
good example.  In the 1940s, only 2% of the population died from heart
disease, but by 1980 it had dramatically increased to 45% (WHO).  

Despite the astounding nature of these findings and their implication for the
health of the nation - and all nations - governments still refuse to act on them
with any real enthusiasm.  

There are other factors involved in heart disease, so if you wish to avoid one,
as well as changing to a predominantly plant-based diet, there are other
actions you should take.  

Cut down or cut out alcohol, begin an exercise program, stop smoking, cut
down on salt (sodium) - which essentially means to cut down on processed
foods - and increase magnesium intake (found in green vegetables, nuts,
whole grains and yeast extract).  

Exercise is important not just for the workout it gives the heart and lungs but
because the lymph system, the body’s self-defense mechanism, works far
more efficiently when the pulse rate is raised.  

In a statement which should worry everyone in the West, the WHO says that
most coronary heart disease happens to people in the medium risk category.  
So, in the wealthy countries of the world, virtually the whole population can
be considered at risk.  

Such a situation, they say, begs for mass intervention designed to protect the
entire population rather than just treating individuals at very high risk.  The
only way that can be achieved is through diet.  But unfortunately, that isn't

              Saturated Fat/Cholesterol
Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver and is present in every cell in an
animal's body, including human animals.  Animal products, including dairy,
are the only source of cholesterol and the main source of saturated fat in the
average U.S. diet.  

Plant foods contain none.  It is not the body's ability to manufacture
cholesterol that creates health problems but the saturated fat and the
cholesterol in the food we eat.  These raise cholesterol levels in the blood,
and this is the primary cause of heart disease.  There is no need to include
cholesterol in the diet (WHO) and vegetarians have much lower levels than
meat eaters.  

According to the
American Heart Association, 99.5 million American adults
have total cholesterol levels above recommended levels.  

Dietary cholesterol is particularly prolific in the fatty parts of animal products -
lard, fat on meat, and the range of dairy products.  Although it is easy to cut
away obvious white fat from meat, there is still a proportion of fat laced with
cholesterol marbled throughout the meat.  The WHO and many leading heart
researchers now believe that the ideal amount of cholesterol in the diet is
zero, which can only be achieved on a vegan diet.  

The process through which cholesterol damages arteries is thought to be
caused by oxidation - the action of molecules called free radicals.  They can
be stabilized by other molecules called antioxidants, found largely in fruit and

Taking vitamin supplements and looking for magic cures to counter high
cholesterol levels hasn't worked.  According to Dr. Lori Mosca of
(and many other researchers):

“The best scientific evidence we have is that eating a diet rich in fruits and
vegetables is protective against heart disease.”  

Amazingly, despite the large amount of evidence that a vegetarian diet is the
best way to avoid high cholesterol levels and the diseases which go with
them, the official advice is not to go vegetarian but to switch to a lower fat diet
- avoiding fatty cuts of red meat, favoring white meat and fish and swapping
butter for margarine.  

Research from the U.S. shows this advice to be largely ineffective.  
Cholesterol levels of people on this 'official' diet tend to drop by only about
5% while changing to a vegetarian diet reduces levels to a much greater

   Clogged Arteries
The official name is atherosclerosis.  It can begin in childhood and starts
when certain fats stick to the lining of the artery, gradually building up plaque
and constricting the flow of blood through the artery.  Over time they grow
and form what's called plaques by collecting droplets of fatty substances, in
particular tiny particles of cholesterol (low density lipoproteins).  

The more cholesterol in the blood, the faster the plaques grow.  As they swell,
they protrude into the artery restricting the flow of blood.  If a chunk of plaque
breaks off it could form a clot in the already narrowed artery causing a heart
attack or stroke.  

As with all heart-related diseases, vegetarians and vegans tend to suffer less
than meat eaters and the more meat you eat, the more likely you are to end up
with clogged arteries.  It's a very serious condition, but fortunately, recent
research shows that an animal-free diet can actually heal some of the damage
done to the arteries.  

A low-fat, vegetarian (almost vegan) diet is part of the only program that has
been shown to reverse heart disease and that can actually reverse
blockages, resulting in an improved blood flow.  

If you still doubt that simple fruit and vegetables can have such a dramatic
effect, it's worth listening to William C. Roberts, distinguished editor-in-chief
of the prestigious
American Journal of Cardiology:

“Although human beings eat meat we are not natural carnivores.  No matter
how much fat carnivores eat they do not develop atherosclerosis.  When we
kill animals to eat them, they end up by killing us because their flesh, which
contains cholesterol and saturated fat, was never intended for human beings
who are natural herbivores.”  

                          High Blood Pressure
The scientific term is hypertension and the condition is directly linked to heart
disease and clogged arteries and the higher the pressure the greater the risk.  

One in five U.S. citizens has high blood pressure and, according to the

American Heart Association
, the condition caused or contributed to the death
of about 210,000 people in 1997.  

Blood pressure is measured both when the heart is actually beating (systolic)
and between beats - the resting rate (diastolic) - and hence is always quoted
as two figures; e.g. 120:80.  

Blood pressure rises as we get older but some people defy this seemingly
inevitable development.  Good physical activity, not getting overweight, low
levels of animal fat in the diet, and limiting the amount of salt eaten all have an

But even allowing for all that, the blood pressure of vegetarians does not
increase as much as meat eaters - in fact it goes up little with age.  It's not
surprising, then, that a vegetarian diet can be used to treat high blood

There is an inescapable link with meat, and a Californian study as long ago as
1926 showed this.  The blood pressure of vegetarians was raised by 10%
simply by feeding them meat - and it happened in only two weeks.  

Other studies have produced similar results and a whole range of studies
have shown vegetarians to have considerably lower blood pressure than
meat eaters.  It is also the finding of the WHO and ADA.  

Perhaps just as importantly, many studies have found that changing to a
vegetarian diet can significantly lower blood pressure.  A Swedish study
found that blood pressure could not only be lowered with low fat vegetarian
diets but the distressing symptoms associated with it could be reduced or
totally eliminated.  At the end of the trial period it was found that most patients
had been able to give up their medication: 50% felt
'much better’ 15% felt
'better' and 30% felt 'completely recovered'.  

The lower risk to vegetarians is considerable and can be anywhere between
33-50% and evidence shows that it is the totality of the vegetarian diet that
works, not any specific ingredient.  

Salt also plays an important part in causing high blood pressure.  In the U.S.
we consume about 4 to 7 grams of salt a day.  

There is also strong evidence that a substance called plasma homocysteine
increases the risk of high blood pressure and consequently death.  Because
vegetarian diets tend to be higher in folate, which reduces homocysteine,
levels, vegetarians may be protected.  

Constant high blood pressure has the ability to weaken blood vessels, which
can eventually rupture and hemorrhage (aneurysm) and this can kill nerve
cells in the brain.  Similarly, a blood clot (thrombus) or the detached fibrous
cap of an arterial plaque (embolism) may cause a blockage in the brain.  

The outcome can be loss of speech, memory or movement or, frequently,
death.  The higher the blood pressure the higher the risk of stroke, and
pressures at the top of the range can increase that risk tenfold (WHO).  All the
advantages of a vegetarian diet in reducing blood pressure may apply to
reducing the risk of strokes.  

There are three separate factors, which contribute to causing cancer -
heredity, environmental pollution and diet.  It's difficult to put percentages on
them, but diet ranks high and accounts for possibly 30-50% of all cancers.  
One thing is certain; cancer is very much a Western disease.  One half of all
cancers in the world afflict just one-fifth of the population - the fifth that lives
in the industrialized countries.  

One set of figures, which illustrates this, is for colon cancer.  People in the U.
S. are four times more likely to develop it than Japanese.  But when
researchers looked at Japanese people who had moved to the U.S., they
found that their risk of colon cancer shot up to near that of people in the U.S.  

The main difference between the two groups was identified as diet - a
traditional Japanese diet is low in animal products while a typical U.S. diet is
very high in them.  Japanese/Americans tended to adopt the U.S. style of
eating once they moved to our country.  

One scientific method of looking at diseases such as cancer is to establish
how different foods affect them, both good and bad - those foods that may
cause the disease (positive) and those that may prevent it (negative).  They're
called correlation studies.  

One of these studies looked at 37 countries and established a strong positive
link between meat and meat protein and intestinal cancer while vegetable
protein was negative - it provided protection.  Another correlation study
carried out in Israel followed the growth of the population from 1.17 million to
3.5 million.  Over this period, meat consumption increased dramatically by
over 400% and cancers doubled.  

Two other studies, one of breast cancer and one of cancer of the uterus,
found similar links between animal protein, fat and cancers.  When complex
carbohydrates - starchy vegetable foods - were considered, the result was
negative (protective).  

In 1981, a massive study looked at cancer in 41 different countries and found
that diets based on beans, maize and, to some degree, rice were good at
preventing both breast and colon cancer while meat promoted both.  

In 1990, the diets of 88,000 women were examined and it became clear that
those who eat beef, pork or lamb as a main dish every day are two-and-a-half
times more likely to develop colon cancer than those who eat meat only once
a month.  

In 1994 came the
Oxford Study (mentioned earlier) and its conclusion that
vegetarians have a 40% less chance of dying from cancer than do meat
eaters.  There are many other studies that show vegetarians are less at risk
by between 25 and 50 percent.  The ADA and BMA have both found that
vegetarians are less likely to develop cancer.  

Interestingly, other studies have found that eating increased amounts of fruit
and vegetables contributes to vegetarians' better chances but doesn't fully
account for it.  In other words, there appears to be something in meat, which
actually causes cancer.  

The WHO has produced a list of dietary pluses and minuses, which affect
cancer.  Fat, it says, plays a part in breast, colon, prostate and rectum cancer
while fruit and vegetables offer protection from lung, colon, bladder, rectum,
oral cavity, stomach, cervix and esophagus cancers.  

On breast cancer it says there is a direct association between the numbers
who die and the intake of high quantities of calories and dietary fats such as
milk and beef.  

In a test carried out in the U.S., researchers investigated the cancer forming
compounds (carcinogens) produced in cooking.  All foods when heated to
cooking temperatures produce these agents but some produce more than

Researchers compared soy-based burgers, beef burgers and bacon, which
were all cooked until well done.  The beef burger produced 44 times more
carcinogens than the soy burger and the bacon produced 346 times more.  

According to predictions by the
American Cancer Society, a third of the
563,000 cancer deaths in 1999 will be nutrition related.  

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the mechanism that allows the body
to use sugar for energy no longer functions properly.  The outcome is that the
body can't control the amount of sugar in the blood.  In virtually every
developing country in the world, diseases associated with affluence are
becoming the new health problem.  

As processed and fat-rich animal foods are increasingly seen as desirable
foods so the diseases develop.  And they follow a pattern, according to the
WHO.  One of the first to show itself is diabetes, followed several decades
later by heart disease and gallstones, then cancer, and finally chronic
disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.  

A major risk factor is obesity and about 80% of non-insulin dependent
diabetics are obese.  People who are moderately overweight are twice as
likely to develop the disease as people of normal weight (WHO).  

In a little over a generation,
diabetes mellitus has increased six-fold and there
are factors at work other than obesity - including heredity.  However, heredity
wouldn't account for the fact that almost all Sumo wrestlers are diabetics - but
their weight and extraordinarily high-fat diet might.  

Diabetics can benefit from a high-fiber, vegetarian diet and people who are
already eating this kind of diet have a 45% reduced chance of developing the
disease.  Heavy meat eaters on the other hand - those who eat meat six or
more times a week - are nearly four times as likely to develop diabetes.  

The ADA states that diabetes is much less likely to be a cause of death in
vegetarians than it is in meat eaters and puts it down to vegetarians' higher
intake of complex carbohydrates (starchy foods) and the fact that they tend to
be lighter.  

Again, the science consistently shows that diabetes is up to 90% higher in
meat-eating men and 40% higher in women.  Even allowing for the fact that
vegetarians tend to be lighter than meat eaters, they still face less risk.  

Diabetes usually begins in middle age and strongly increases the risk of
developing coronary heart disease, kidney failure, eye and neurological
(nerve) damage (WHO).  

More good news for vegetarians is that plant-based diets often eliminates or
reduces a diabetic's need to take medication and reduces the chance of
developing both nerve and eye (retina) damage.  According to the AHA, in
1997 diabetes killed 62,636 people in the U.S.  

Gallstones are formed when bile becomes saturated with cholesterol - they
are, in fact, composed of cholesterol crystals.  They can go undetected for
years but can also lead to serious conditions - infection, inflammation, colic,
peritonitis and even gangrene.  

They are much more common in women than in men.  The WHO states that
the condition affects meat eaters considerably more than it does vegetarians.  
A study of 800 women established that meat eaters are two-and-a-half to four
times more likely to have gallstones than vegetarians.  

It isn't just a question of being overweight; obesity is linked with many
diseases, according to the WHO.  It is, in fact, the same string of degenerative
conditions associated with meat eating.  Obese women face an increased risk
of cancers of the gallbladder, breast and uterus, and in men, the cancer risk
increases in the prostate and kidneys.  Most worrying of all is when fat is
deposited around the abdomen.  

Obesity is much less common among vegetarians than it is among meat
eaters.  In fact, vegetarians tend to be approximately 10% leaner and most
overweight people shed pounds when they change to a veggie diet.

According to the
Department of Agriculture, one-third of adults and one-fifth
of adolescents in the U.S. are overweight, and the rate has increased across
all race and sex groups since the 1970s.  

All kinds of names have been given to this condition, including widow stoop
and brittle bones.  It is, in fact, the loss of bone mass - essentially calcium -
leading to more fragile bones.  It is a very serious disease and accounts for
more deaths - mostly from fractured hips - than cancers of the cervix, breast
and uterus combined.  

The advice that you must drink milk in order to prevent
osteoporosis has
more to do with marketing than good dietary advice, because preventing
osteoporosis isn't that simple and some studies have shown eating dairy
products did not protect against
osteoporosis in women.  

Acid-forming foods cause the body to excrete calcium, while alkaline-forming
foods allow the body to conserve calcium.  Fruits and vegetables are the
foods, which are significantly alkaline-forming.  

A diet containing large amounts of fruits and vegetables should significantly
decrease urinary calcium excretion.  

The ideal scenario for improving bone mineral density is to have a good
intake of calcium in the diet paired with a minimal excretion rate.  On the
intake side, kale, broccoli and collards are excellent sources of calcium, and
the calcium is absorbed at about the same rate as from milk.  

Legumes, figs, and fortified foods are also good sources of calcium.  Fruits,
vegetables, and fruit juices are good for bones because they are the most
alkaline-forming of all foods.  Of course, these plant foods sources also
provide other important minerals, antioxidants and complex carbohydrates.  

Unfortunately, most medical advice concentrates only on the intake side of
the equation and ignores the reasons for calcium loss.  These include salt,
caffeine, tobacco, lack of exercise, and possibly alcohol and animal protein.  

Dr. Colin Campbell, of the
China Study, says:
“Osteoporosis tends to occur in countries where calcium intake is highest and
most of it comes from protein-rich dairy foods”.  

However, sufficient calcium can be obtained from plant foods.  A recent study
showed that a trace element called boron plays an important part in helping
to prevent calcium loss.  When a group of menopausal women included it in
their diet, calcium losses were cut by 40%.  The natural sources of boron are
not dairy products but apples, pears, grapes, nuts, leafy vegetables and

Vegans just like everyone else, need to make sure that they get an adequate
amount of calcium in their diet and engage in weight bearing exercises to
keep their bones healthy.  

           Iron Deficiency Anemia
The myth that you can only get iron from meat has been so prevalent that the
public unquestionably believes that you need it to obtain iron.  So successful
have they been that it has almost entered the public's consciousness that to
avoid iron deficiency you must eat meat.  It's simply not true.  Vegetarian
diets, which include vegetables, legumes, fruits and grains, provide all the
iron necessary.  

Iron deficiency is, however, the biggest nutritional problem facing the world
and the WHO estimates that 750 million people have it - most of them women
and most of childbearing age.  The cause is therefore fairly obvious - blood
loss and not just diet.  The proportion of Western women who experience it is
around 20% - and it occurs with the same frequency in meat eaters and

All the main health bodies -
ADA, BMA, WHO, PCRM - agree that vegetarians
are no more likely to suffer deficiency than meat eaters.  However, that
doesn't alter the fact that it is a problem for many women, and all should
ensure they have good sources of iron in their diet, particularly during and
shortly after their periods.  

A criticism sometimes leveled at vegetarian diets is that plant-based iron is
poorly absorbed by the body.  It may be more slowly absorbed, but studies
show that vegetarians have high intakes of iron and their hemoglobin levels
are normal.  

Plant foods rich in vitamin C help absorption and vegetarians tend to eat
more of these vital fresh fruits and vegetables.  Iron intakes are particularly
high in vegetarians and vegans whose staple food is wholemeal bread, so
this is another reason for sticking to whole products rather than eating
processed, mass-produced foods.  

So misguided have been the concerns over iron deficiency that they have
diverted public attention away from the problems of iron overload, more
common and possibly more dangerous.  If you have too much iron in your
diet, the body has no way of getting rid of it.  

The only control over it is how slowly or quickly it is absorbed from the
intestines into the blood.  Iron from meat is absorbed quickly and easily,
whether the body needs it or not.  This encourages iron overload.  

Iron from plants is absorbed more slowly and as a result, vegetarians' stores
of iron tend to be lower than meat eaters.  

Meat-based iron has been linked with heart disease and high iron stores have
been linked with cancer and poor responses to infection.  

              Protein Deficiency
This is not a problem for vegetarians.  If you eat a variety of foods and
enough calories you will automatically obtain enough protein.  

You occasionally still see references saying that meat is a complete protein
and that plant protein is incomplete.  What it means is that meat contains all
the necessary amino acids that make up protein, while a vegetarian diet
obtains its amino acids from a variety of plant sources.  

Vegetarians obtain more than enough of all the amino acids and all the
world's health bodies agree on this - it is not necessary to eat specific
combinations of foods at the same meal.  

The real problem is not too little protein but too much, particularly for meat
eaters.  Animal protein is associated with many of the degenerative diseases
while vegetable protein isn't.  

Meat protein is also believed to play an important part in causing
osteoporosis and kidney disease, according to the WHO.  

    Vitamin B12 Deficiency
This is a very important vitamin - made by bacteria - essential for the
development of blood cells and for nerve function.  A lack of it can lead to
collapse of the nervous system and eventually death.  

However, the liver can store it for years and only minute traces are needed -
two micrograms per day.  

Vegans should be sure to get a daily supply from fortified foods such as soy
milk, mock soy meats (TVP), and breakfast cereals.  

B12 – producing bacteria live mainly in the colon, past the point where it can
be absorbed.  However, some may possibly be absorbed and this may be
why the incidences of B12 deficiency among vegans who do not supplement
with B12 are somewhat rare.  

 Zinc Deficiency
Vegetarian diets provide enough zinc even though plants tend to contain less
than meat.  Partly it's because people on plant-based diets lose less zinc in
their urine.  

Slightly lower levels of zinc in the blood have been identified in vegetarians
and vegans and may be due to lower absorption, caused by their higher
intake of fiber - but it is unlikely that this has any medical significance.  

Studies have consistently failed to show that they are any less healthy
because of it.  According to the ADA, zinc levels in hair, blood and saliva of
vegetarians and vegans are all within the normal range.  There is strong
evidence that people with low zinc intake simply adapt to the situation.  Zinc
can be obtained from rice, corn, oats, peas, potatoes, and spinach.  

When researchers talk about
‘normal’ levels, it’s important to remember that
this is an average range in a meat-eating society.  In fact it may well be the
vegans who have a normal level and meat eaters whose levels are too high.  

 Eating Disorders
Because a vegetarian diet excludes common foods, it can be used as an
excuse to avoid eating by some people suffering from anorexia nervosa.  
However, there is no link between becoming a vegetarian and subsequently
developing anorexia nervosa as a result.  

The ADA has looked for such a link and has found none.  Research from the
U.S. and Australia shows that prior to the onset of anorexia the number of
patients claiming to be vegetarian is no more than the national average.  

A disease in children where softening of the bones is caused by a deficiency
of vitamin D.  This is not a problem in vegans as long as the child gets plenty
of sunlight and/or vitamin D fortified foods and soymilks, or in supplements.  

Humans make vitamin D from the action of sunlight on the skin. It has been
calculated that exposure of hands and face to sunlight for 10 to 15 minutes a
day is enough to prevent rickets for light skinned people and people living in
cloudy climates and dark-skinned people need up to six times this amount of
sun.  Extra amounts are stored over the winter.  

                 Saturated Fats
More accurately, these are saturated fatty acids and their main source is
animal products!  They have a direct and major impact on blood cholesterol
and therefore promote heart disease.  Saturated fats have also been linked
with cancers of the colon and breast, according to the WHO, which states that
they are not needed in the diet.  

                 Free Radicals
They weren't discovered until the early 1980's.  They're thought to play a part
in causing some 60 diseases and are capable of wreaking havoc on healthy
cells.  Free radicals are unstable molecules, a product of oxidation and, in a
sense, the rust of the body.  

In stable molecules, electrons normally associate in pairs, providing a
balance.  Everyday functions such as simply breathing, digesting food or
moving about can remove one electron from a molecule, creating a free
radical.  This now unstable molecule tries to regain an electron by snatching
one from another molecule.  

When it succeeds, another free radical is created and a chain reaction is set
up in which the DNA, the body's vital genetic information, may be damaged.  

Then the damaged DNA can produce cancer or other disease causing cells.  
The Solgar Nutritional Research Center puts it this way:

“Imagine if someone scrambled all the area codes in your telephone book; all
your calls would result in wrong numbers.  In the same fashion, jumbled
genetic codes in your cells make you vulnerable to any one of the 60 different
serious physical illnesses.”

As well as bodily functions, cigarette smoke, pollution, ultraviolet light and
stress can create free radicals; but so can cooking - in particular meat.  

Researchers in the U.S. cooked beef burgers, bacon and soy-based burgers
and found that both the beef burgers and bacon produced significant
amounts of the most damaging free radicals while the soy burger produced
none.  The remedy for free radicals are molecules called antioxidants.  

All the world's health advisory bodies agree that antioxidants are part of the
body’s vital self-protection mechanism, which actually defend you against 60
or more diseases, including the big killers of heart disease and cancer.  

They were almost unknown until somewhat recently and knowledge is still
growing.  The three big saviors are vitamins - the beta carotene form of
vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E.  None of them are in meat but the number
of different plant foods, which contain them, is enormous.  

A recent discovery by
Glasgow University, in Scotland, added another
powerful antioxidant to the list - flavonol.  It also is not in meat but
predominantly in fruits and vegetables.  

The importance of folate in the diet is beginning to be appreciated,
particularly by pregnant women.  Lack of folate has been linked with serious
birth defects but it is also associated with increased levels of cancer and
heart disease.  Folate also has an essential role in the formation of DNA and
in manufacturing blood cells and it contributes to the formation of heme - the
iron-binding portion of hemoglobin.  It's pretty important stuff!  

The major sources of folate are all plant based and so most vegetarians have
considerably higher intakes than meat eaters.  In fact, some studies show that
only vegetarians and vegans achieve the recommended intake of this
vitamin.  A recent discovery links lack of folate with heart disease.  

Most people suffering a heart attack (
myocardial infarction) have normal
cholesterol levels - so what's helping to cause the disease if cholesterol isn't
the sole culprit?  Inadequate folic acid intake, it seems, allows a substance
called homocysteine to prosper and contribute to carotid artery thickening.  

Some 40% of the population is not consuming enough folate to keep
homocysteine levels low and this may well account for a fair proportion of
heart disease.  

Increased levels of homocysteine in the blood raises the risk of heart disease
to levels equivalent to smoking and increases the risk associated with high
blood pressure.  Again, vegetarians come out well on top.  

Fiber is the substance that makes up the cell walls of plants and passes
through the body without being digested.  It provides the bulk that ensures
food is processed quickly through the bowels and because of the nature of
their diet; vegetarians have a higher fiber intake than meat eaters.  

The fact that fiber speeds waste products through the body it reduces the
time that
'noxious agents' - possibly cancer forming agents - spend in the
intestines.  It also affects the rate at which glucose (sugar) is released and
absorbed and so helps reduce the chance of diabetes.  

Fiber also reduces the urge to eat and so it helps with appetite control -
according to the WHO.  Not surprisingly, diets high in fiber give a lower risk of
heart disease and cancer.  

Milk is largely made up of animal fats, animal protein, and lactose - none of
which is required by the body.  Difficulty in digesting lactose is extremely
common throughout the World, and in Africa it can range between 65-100% of
the population; in Latin Americans it ranges between 45-94% - and is even
higher among Asians.  

Most people can tolerate small quantities but research is being undertaken
into its possible connection with ovarian problems and cataracts.  

Often the inability to digest lactose goes unnoticed, particularly in children,
but can lead to iron deficiency because of the intestinal bleeding it can

In an article published in
Good Medicine, the late Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote:

“Dairy products contribute to a surprising number of health problems.  They
can impair a child’s ability to absorb iron and in very small children can even
cause subtle blood loss from the digestive tract.  Cow’s milk proteins are a
common cause of colic, and now the American Academy of Pediatrics has
concluded that there is evidence that cow’s milk may well contribute to

It’s worth remembering that there are about 5,000 species of mammals in the
world and only humans consume milk after weaning - and that of another
species, one whose offspring grow four times faster than children.  

              Mothers and Babies
Often women are told they should eat some meat during their pregnancy.  
This poor advice possibly reflects the fact that most GPs receive almost no
nutritional education throughout the whole of their training nor

In fact, dietary choices are linked to 70% of all diseases affecting people in
the U.S., yet only 30 of the 125 U.S. medical schools require doctors to take a
nutrition course.  In four years of school, the average physician gets only 2.5
hours of nutritional training.  

Vegetarian and vegan diets can easily meet the nutrient needs of pregnancy.  
In fact, vegetarian mothers have a much lower incidence of pre-eclampsia, a
serious convulsive disorder that occurs near the end of pregnancy, and
cesarean section than meat eaters; and, they have reduced levels of
contaminants in their breast milk.  One of the most worrying of these
contaminants is the residue from pesticides.  

The ADA states that vegetarian diets are suitable for every stage of the life
cycle, including pregnancy and lactation.  

There is currently some concern that there may be a link between the
proteins in cows milk and other dairy products and diabetes in the fetus and
newborn baby.  

All pregnant women and mothers, particularly vegan, should carefully watch
their intake of iron and vitamin B12, increasing their intake of foods, which
contain them.  

Although incidents of vitamin B12 deficiency are rare, when they are seen it is
mostly in babies.  It is therefore vital for vegan mothers to eat a good supply
of fortified foods, and if they don't like those, to take B12 supplements.  

Something deeply depressing is happening to the diet of our children.  For
many, fresh fruit and vegetables are completely alien, fiber is almost
unknown, and the consumption of denatured processed foods is a daily

We are deep into the burger, chips, and sweets culture and obesity is
booming.  Effectively, children's consumption of sugar and fat - much of it
animal fat - is out of control.  

These diets are far worse than those their parents ate, and so the prognosis
for future cases of cancer and heart disease, already at epidemic proportions,
is worrying.  The first signs of
atherosclerosis have been identified in children
- babies - as young as three years old.  

In this context, the doom-laden warnings that some journalists give to
teenagers about the risks of a vegetarian diet are nothing short of laughable.  
Many, if not most, young people eat an extremely poor diet.  Of course,
anyone can eat a poor diet, including vegetarian children, but the science
shows that giving up meat and animal fats is one of the healthiest moves
anyone can make, regardless of their age.  

Vegetarian children grow and develop in exactly the way they should and
developmental tests show their mental age to be over a year in advance of
their chronological age.  There is also evidence that they enter puberty later,
which has shown to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer later in life.  

Studies done in the 1940s, shortly after the war when little meat and dairy was
available, showed that children grow and develop quite normally on a diet
consisting of plenty of bread and vegetables with minimal amounts of milk
and meat.  In fact, a whole string of studies have shown that vegetarian and
vegan children develop normally.  

The BMA states that vegetarian diets contain all the necessary nutrients and
are suitable for infants.  The ADA agrees that infants, children, and
adolescents all grow and develop normally and that vegetarian diets are
'healthful' and satisfy all their nutritional needs.  

Virtually the whole of the West's public education on diet has encouraged
people to consume increasing amounts of animal-based nutrients.  We're
now finding that there is not just a minimum nutrient intake for good health
but a maximum.  

Most of these policies were formulated in the 1940s and are all about
preventing deficiency diseases.  There was little knowledge of the damage
that could be caused by too many nutrients and so these policies are
completely out of touch with modern knowledge and modern living.  They're
not designed to protect people from the over-consumption of meat, dairy,
sugar and fat.  

Most affluent countries now show a high risk profile for some of the world's
biggest killers and intervention on a mass scale is needed to change dietary
patterns and make them healthier, says the WHO.  

So what does the WHO believe we should be eating?  Fat should be reduced
to 15% of total energy instead of the nearly 40% it is at present - most of it
animal fat.  There doesn’t need to be animal fats in the diet at all as they are
not essential nutrients.  Neither do we need cholesterol.  

The bulk of our diet should be complex carbohydrates, starchy foods -
potatoes, bread, pasta, rice, yams, etc.  They should account for between 50
and 70% of all calories.  

Protein should provide between 10-15% but can readily be met by a varied
diet based predominantly on cereals and legumes.  

The key component of a healthy diet is, therefore, complex carbohydrates -
with as wide a range of fresh fruit, vegetables, grains, legumes, seeds and
nuts as possible - in other words, a sensible vegetarian/vegan diet.  

There is a wealth of evidence, according to the WHO, that foods rich in starch
are really good for health and give protection against several diseases.  They
improve the chemistry of the digestive system and are a rich source of many
minerals and vitamins, including essential fatty acids, calcium, zinc, iron, and
water-soluble vitamins - all known to have a clear and positive effect on

That is a pretty astounding statement from the world's leading health
advisory body and a clear call to the entire globe to go veggie.  It dismisses
those who are constantly harping on about vegetarians having a 'restricted'
diet.  In fact, vegans and vegetarians often have a wide variety of plant foods
and their diets tend to contain many choices.  

There is little doubt that the WHO's report is quite profound.  It calls for a
complete revision in agricultural policy to promote fruit and vegetables
instead of meat and to grow cereals instead of producing meat and dairy.  

It goes on to say that its proposed nutritional objectives will have immense
implications for the economics of farming, for government, industrial and
social policies and for international trade, and can thus be expected to meet
with considerable opposition.  How right they are.  

By going vegan, you can take control of your own health and in the process
you will help to bring an end to the horrors of factory farming, and help
diminish the onslaught that is destroying the world's oceans.  

You will begin to offer hope to the world's starving, and you will help the
environment to recover.  It is one of the most important actions you can take
in a world that is in frighteningly rapid decline, much of it caused by livestock
production, fishing, and fish farming.  

By: Neal D. Barnard, M.D.
President; Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC.  

The Healthiest Diet of All  

Neal D. Barnard