Comparative Anatomy
Natural carnivores have the inherent anatomical equipment provided as their
birthright with which to apprehend, capture, kill, and rend their quarry.  

Dogs have powerful jaws that inflict fatal wounds to their prey.  Humans
however, have no sharp claws for tearing; no sharply pointed fangs for
slashing; nor are our eyes or olfactory senses well developed for hunting.  

Nor is the human body designed to run fast enough to capture prey.  Humans
cannot grab animals in their mouth, as do dogs, coyotes, wolves, jackals, lions,
tigers, or cats.  

We instead inflict more damage with our hands and brute strength.  Humans
do however; have marvelous fingers, thumbs, and limbs for reaching, climbing
and grabbing.  

Our natural food gathering capacity is very similar to the chimpanzees.  
Fruitarians of the primate order also have revolving joints in their shoulder,
wrist, and elbow joints that allow for free movement in all directions.  

Frugivores have soft pliable, sensitive hands and fingers with opposable
thumbs and flat nails that are perfect for grasping and gathering fruit.  

Regarding the extremities of the other species, herbivores possess hooves
allowing them to walk easily about grassy plains, and carnivores possess
sharp claws allowing them to violently attack their prey.  

Tree-dwellers and fruit-gatherers also have stereoscopic binocular vision
that makes vision precise enough to ascertain the position of tree limbs
and objects.  

Another anatomical comparison among species in the animal kingdom
involves the structure of the skin.  All vegetarian animals have abundant sweat
glands.  In carnivores, their sweat glands are atrophied and inactive.  They are
exempt from profuse sweating in order to prevent a large fluid loss that would
cause concentrated precipitation of nitrogenous wastes (from flesh-eating).  

This explains why meat-eaters suffer in hot weather while vegetarians remain
relatively comfortable.  

                         Comparative Digestive Physiology
Among the various species throughout nature, the length of their particular
alimentary canals also differs greatly in relation to their natural food.  The gut
of the carnivore is 3-6 times the length of their body.  

They require a short, smooth, fast-acting gut since their natural flesh diet
becomes quite toxic and cannot be retained within the intestine for long
without poisonous putrefaction taking place.  

The gut of the herbivore is sacculated for greater surface area, and is 30 times
the length of their body.  Its herb and grass diet is coarse and fibrous, requiring
longer digestion to break down cellulose.  

The length of the omnivore's alimentary canal is generally 6 times its body
trunk size.  The gut of the frugivore (like humans) is also sacculated and is 12
times the length of its body.  

The human digestive tract is about four times as long as the carnivores.  The
intestine of the carnivore is short and smooth in order to dissolve food rapidly
and pass it quickly out of the system prior to the flesh putrefying.  

The human digestive tract is corrugated for the specific purpose of retaining
food as long as possible until all nutriment has been extracted, which is the
worst possible condition for the digestion and processing of flesh foods.  

Meat moves quickly through the carnivore's digestive tract and is quickly
expelled.  The human lengthy intestine cannot handle low-fiber foods including
meat and dairy very quickly at all.  

As a consequence, animal foods decrease the motility of the human intestine
and putrefaction almost invariably occurs (as evidenced by foul smelling
stools and flatulence), resulting in the release of many poisonous by-products
as the low-fiber food passes through, ever so slowly.  

In humans, eventual constipation may develop on a meat-centered diet.  Colon
cancer is also common, both of which are rare or non-existent on a high-fiber
diet centered around raw fruits and vegetables.  

                         Stomach, Kidney and Liver  
Stomach form and size among various species also vary markedly.  In the
carnivore the stomach is a small, round sack designed to dissolve flesh
quickly and then pass it on for removal.  

In plant eaters (particularly ruminants) stomachs are complicated adjoining
sacks with ring-like convolutions.  The frugivore stomach (including humans)
is oblong and is characterized by folds called rugae, which serve to retain food
for relatively long periods.  

Organ sizes of various species also markedly vary.  The liver and kidneys in
the carnivore are much larger than in vegetarian animals.  

A lions kidney is twice the size of a bulls, and not much smaller than the
elephants.  This allows the lion to handle large amounts of protein and
nitrogenous waste products contained in its natural flesh diet.  

The carnivores huge liver secretes larger amounts of bile into the small
intestine than does the herbivores liver.  There is a direct relation between the
quantity of meat eaten and the amount of bile secreted.  Meat-eating therefore,
places a strain on the small liver of humans, which impairs the organ's function
over a long period of time.  

When you place humans on a diet for which they are NOT naturally adapted,
this places unnatural stress on the organs of elimination.  Humans have never
adapted to the carnivorous diet that is high in animal products.  

The human liver is smaller than the carnivores and as a result, we cannot
detoxify the poisonous products inherent within animal foods such as uric
acid (discussed below).  Our kidneys are also smaller and become diseased
from overwork caused by a diet high in animal protein.  

                       Comparative Digestive Enzymes
The hydrochloric acid concentrations of various species are an additional
determinant of their natural diet.  

A carnivores gastric juice is highly acidic, serving to prevent putrefaction while
flesh undergoes digestion.  

Plant-eaters however, secrete a much less concentrated and less abundant
quantity of hydrochloric acid that does not curtail the bacterial decomposition
of flesh: a process that begins at the animals moment of death.  

Flesh is digested in an acid medium within the stomach.  Humans secrete a
very weak concentration of hydrochloric acid relative to the carnivore, and
little of the protein-splitting enzyme pepsinogen.  

Carnivorous animals have concentrations of these flesh-digesting secretions
1100% greater than do humans.  Lions can rip off and swallow your hand
whole and quite readily digest it.  

                   Uric Acid: Toxic Component of Meat to Humans

About 5% of the flesh volume of all animals consists of waste material called
uric acid that is normally eliminated by the kidneys.  Uric acid is a poison to
humans because it is toxic and non-metabolizable.  

Nearly 100% of Americans suffer some form of osteoporosis, which is due in
large part, to the acidic end products of meat (and grain) eating.  

All carnivorous animals however, secrete the enzyme uricase that breaks
down uric acid so it can be readily eliminated.  Humans do not generate this

Instead, we absorb uric acid when meat is eaten.  As a result, calcium-urate
crystals form and concentrate in joints, feet, and in the lower back.  

These deposits lead to arthritis, gout, rheumatism, bursitis, and lower back
pain.  Humans are physiologically unsuited to utilizing meat as food.  

Natural carnivores swallow hunks of carrion almost unchewed, and the flesh is
digested in the stomach with ease and facility.  

If humans were to do the same, we would digest very little of it before
putrefaction set in and illness ensued.  For humans, meat is a pathogenic and
nutritionally deficient food.  

                        Saliva pH Varies Widely Among Species

The saliva pH of various species is another determinant of their natural diet.  In
carnivores, their saliva glands are small and secrete an acidic saliva having
little or no effect on starch, which makes sense since flesh is virtually

Omnivores (like pigs) have tremendous salivary glands that secrete copious
quantities of starch-splitting enzymes.  Humans only have one starch-splitting
enzyme, versus a multitude of them in omnivores and other natural
starch-eating animals.  

Our ptyalin is very limited.  This rules us out as being true granivores
(starch-eaters), which includes grains and cereals.  

Frugivores have salivary glands that secrete alkaline saliva, containing only
moderate amounts of ptyalin, which initiates starch digestion.  This tells us
that humans and other frugivores can easily digest the small amount of starch
contained in fresh fruits, nuts, and leafy greens, and that humans are not
intended to subsist on a diet of highly starchy grain foods as many currently

(Diabetes mellitus is largely the result of consuming large amounts of refined
sugars and starches.  Even eating predominantly of whole grains and natural
legumes, as dietary staples can be injurious because of the need for excessive
starch digestion).  

                   Science Verifies That Human Ancestors Were Frugivores

Dr. Alan Walker, an anthropologist of John Hopkins University in Maryland, has
done research showing that early humans were once exclusively fruit eaters.  
By careful examination of fossil teeth and fossilized human remains with
electron microscopes and other sophisticated tools, Dr. Walker and his
colleagues are absolutely certain that early humans until relatively recently,
were total fruitarians.  New York Times, May 15, 1979.  

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Naturalist, Zoologist specializing in comparative
anatomy, said:

"The natural food of man, judging from his structure, appears to consist
principally of the fruits, roots, and other succulent parts of vegetables.  His
hands afford every facility for gathering them; his short but moderately strong
jaws on the other hand, and his canines being equal only in length to the other
teeth, together with his tuberculated molars on the other, would scarcely permit
him either to masticate herbage, or to devour flesh, were these condiments not
previously prepared by cooking."  

In conclusion, our natural diet should consist primarily of fruits, nuts, and
green vegetables.  We can be called frugivores because many
"vegetables" are
botanically considered fruits.  

Frugivores are physiologically equipped to obtain energy primarily from the
natural sugar in fruits.  Humans are bestowed with a kind of
"natural sweet
to guide us in the selection of foods that meet our biological disposition
and our caloric needs: namely, sweet juicy fruits.  

Our anatomy is such that we are capable of picking fruits, masticate, digest,
and appropriate them with ease and efficiency.  Fruits contain all the nutrients
we need: vitamins, minerals, proteins (in the form of amino acids), fats, and
carbohydrates.  All seed-bearing foods are botanically defined as
"fruit".  This
includes avocado, sweet pepper, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, even nuts and

In Botany fruit is mature ovary, and is made of two parts: the pericarp or edible
flesh, and the seed portion itself from fertilized ovules.  

To enjoy an energetic, youthful, disease-free life, eat a varied diet
predominantly of foods you are biologically adapted to: raw fresh fruits,
vegetables, nuts, seeds, sprouted grains, and perhaps occasional legumes
and tubers.  

By: Jonathan Reed

Article: Natural Human Diet According To Biological & Evolutionary Evidence

                                      Natural Human Diet
        According To Biological & Evolutionary Evidence
                                                    By: Jonathan Reed

The foods and influences to which a species is biologically adapted are those
"natural" to its disposition as derived by the sum total of their
biological heritage from millions of years of evolution.  

Cumulative adaptations in each species over eons of time determines their
natural dietary needs.  For instance: The koala bear of Australia is adapted to
eating a variety of gum leaves.  The giraffe's long neck allows it to feed on the
foliage of trees.  The lion's fangs and claws allow it to kill and render animals
for food.  

The eagle's keen eyesight and powerful claws make it a formidable predator of
ground rodents and small game.  

Carnivores have become adapted to eating other animals.  Non-carnivorous
animals have adapted to eating vegetable matter as food.  Dietary adaptations
more than anything else determine the features and characteristics of all

                                        Humans Are Not an Exception  
It is a basic premise of Natural Hygiene that humans, like all other creatures in
nature are provided with all the materials and conditions required to maintain

Species throughout nature intuitively restrict themselves to a limited variety of
foods to which they are specifically adapted.  We must conclude that humans
are also intended to partake only of those foods to which we are
physiologically adapted in order to live healthfully.  

Humans should be studied as a member of the whole biological community,
and compared anatomically and physiologically with other species to ascertain
our true dietary requirements.  

When considering the character of human anatomy and physiology relative to
our natural diet we must do so within the context of nature, rather than in the
artificial environment of modern life.  In this way, we consider our natural foods
as those that are consonant with our physiological faculties, rather than those
that we have
"acquired a taste for".  

                     Determining Our Natural Diet is Not a Matter of Belief

Tradition and popularity are the poorest ways to determine a proper diet.  
Recent changes in our external environment do not alter our biological
adaptations, our internal makeup, or our natural needs in order to establish
optimum well being.  

Biological adaptations have been spurred on by stress over eons of time and
by the need to adapt.  They are slow to develop requiring extremely long
periods of time to evolve.  Our highly industrialized environment involves more
social adaptations or accommodations, and not physical or anatomical

By living according to our natural adaptations we can actually withstand the
stress of modern life far better than if we transgress our biological needs.  

The only authority we should rely on when it comes to determining what foods
are best to eat is the human body.  It is anatomy and physiology that decrees
whether food is
"acceptable" or "harmful".  

Determining our natural diet is not a matter of belief: its basis lies in scientific
fact regarding our biological, biochemical, anatomical, and physiological

The first question in forming a scientific opinion about our natural diet is: What
is our natural food?  Are we true carnivores who secure their nutrient needs
not only from raw flesh, but also from raw blood, bones etc, as tigers and

Are we true herbivores (grazers) who thrive on lettuce, grasses, raw grains,
celery, etc., as do horses, cows and sheep?  Are we granivores like birds who
thrive mostly on raw seeds of grasses and grains?  

Are we natural omnivores who thrive in health regardless of the foodstuffs
consumed?  Or are we frugivores who can thrive on a diet of raw fresh
bananas, grapes, apples, oranges, or melons meal after meal?  

The human digestive system and physiology determines our optimum diet.  By
understanding the physiological processes that accompany food digestion
and absorption, proper dietary habits can be scientifically determined.  

                      Teeth Comparison        
"nutritionists" assert that we have definite carnivorous leanings, and
some have even termed our incisor teeth
"fangs" in defense of their erroneous
position that humans are natural meat-eaters!  

If you look at the various species in the animal kingdom, each is equipped with
teeth that are ideally suited to masticate a particular type of food.  

Herbivores (like the cow) have 24 molars, eight jagged incisors in the lower jaw
and a horny palate in the upper jaw.  Their jaws move vertically, laterally,
forward, and backward, enabling the herbivore to tear and grind coarse

Omnivores (like the hog) have tusk-like canines allowing them to dig up roots.  

Frugivores (like the chimpanzee or gorilla) have 32 teeth: sixteen in each jaw
including four incisors, two cuspids, four bicuspids, and six molars.  The
cuspids are adapted for cracking nuts, and the uniform articulation of the teeth
enables the frugivore to mash and grind fruits.  

On the contrary, carnivores (like the cat family) have markedly developed
canines that are long, sharp, cylindrical, pointed, and set apart from the other

Fangs and sharp pointed teeth that penetrate and kill, that rip and tear flesh, are
a feature of all true carnivores (except certain birds).  The powerful jaws of the
carnivore move only vertically, and are ideal for ripping and tearing flesh that is
swallowed virtually whole and then acted upon by extremely potent gastric

Human teeth are not designed for tearing flesh as in the lion, wolf or dog,
but rather compare closely with other fruit-eating animals.  Human teeth
correspond almost identically to the chimpanzees and other frugivores.  

The complete absence of spaces between human teeth characterizes us as
the archetype frugivore.  The
"canine" teeth of humans are short, stout, and
slightly triangular.  They are less pronounced and developed than the
orangutan's, who rarely kills and eats raw flesh in its natural environment.  

Human canines in no way resemble the long, round, slender canines of the
true carnivore.  Human teeth are not curved or sharp like the wolves or tigers,
nor are they wide and flat like the grass and grain-eating species.   

Human teeth are actually like the fruit-eating monkeys, and the human mouth is
best suited for eating succulent fruits and vegetables.  It would be extremely
difficult, if not impossible, for humans to eat raw flesh without the aid of fork
and knife.  To term our incisor teeth
"fangs" or even to liken them as such is
Human Teeth
Wolf Teeth